The cover or Canopy of the umbrella is hand sewn in individual panels to the ribs. Because each panel has to be shaped to the curve of the canopy, the cover cannot be cut in one piece. Panels are sewn at the outer edges of the ribs, and there are also connections between the ribs and the panels about one-third of the way down from the outer edge of the canopy. Each panel is cut separately from piles of materials called gores; machine cutting of several layers at once is possible, although hand-cutting is more typical. The typical rain umbrella has eight panels, although some umbrellas with four, six, seven, twelve, sixteen and even twenty-four panels can occasionally be found.
Ribs and stretchers:
The ribs and stretchers are assembled first, usually from "U" shaped or channeled steel or other metal. Ribs run underneath the top or canopy of the umbrella; stretchers connect the ribs with the shaft of the umbrella. The ribs are attached to the shaft of the umbrella by fitting into a top notch—a thin, round nylon or plastic piece with teeth around the edges, and then held with thin wire. The stretchers are connected to the shaft of the umbrella with a plastic or metal runner, the piece that moves along the shaft of the umbrella when it is opened or closed.
The stick umbrella will usually begin its life as a shaft of wood, metal, or aluminum. Fiberglass is occasionally used in large golf umbrella. Wood from various types of ash trees, including Rowan wood from Asia, is among the popular choices for a sturdy wood shaft. While wood shafts are made using standard wood-shaping machines such as turning machines and lathes, metal and plastic shafts can be drawn or extruded to the proper shape.
The handle is connected to the shaft at the end of the process, and can be wood, plastic, aluminum, EVA, rubber or PU leather. Handles can be screwed on, heat up shaft or glue to secure the handle more tightly.
5. PU leather wrapped
6. Fabric wrapped
There is wide range of choice in umbrella fabric such as Polyester, nylon, Pongee, satin, T/C, PVC, EVA, Oxford or nano fabric. The good-quality umbrella fabric is usually rated at 170T or 190T. It means there are 170 or 190 threads per inch, with an acrylic coating on the underside. The coating and finish are usually applied by the fabric supplier. Fabric patterns and designs can be chosen by the manufacturer, or the manufacturer might add his own patterns and designs using a rotary or silk screening process, especially for a special order of a limited number of umbrellas.